PathMinder Pty Ltd have partnered with AllUser Industries srl to bring Europe’s most advanced high security portals to the Australian and New Zealand markets. AllUser Industries started to…read more
World’s protected natural areas receive eight billion visits a year
The world’s national parks and nature reserves receive around eight billion visits every year, according to the first study into the global scale of nature-based tourism in protected areas.
The paper, by researchers from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom, Princeton University in the USA and the World Wildlife Fund, published in the open access journal PLOS Biology, is the first global-scale attempt to answer the question of how many visits protected areas receive, and what they might be worth in terms of tourist dollars.
The authors of the study say that this number of visits could generate as much as US$600 billion of tourism expenditure annually - a huge economic benefit which vastly exceeds the less than US$10 billion spent safeguarding these sites each year.
Scientists and conservation experts describe current global expenditure on protected areas as “grossly insufficient”, and have called for greatly increased investment in the maintenance and expansion of protected areas – a move which this study shows would yield substantial economic return – as well as saving incalculably precious natural landscapes and species from destruction.
Lead author Professor Andrew Balmford, from Cambridge University’s Department of Zoology explained “it’s fantastic that people visit protected areas so often, and are getting so much from experiencing wild nature – it’s clearly important to people and we should celebrate that.
“These pieces of the world provide us with untold benefits: from stabilising the global climate and regulating water flows to protecting untold numbers of species.
“Now we’ve shown that through tourism nature reserves contribute in a big way to the global economy – yet many are being degraded through encroachment and illegal harvesting, and some are being lost altogether.”
Corresponding author Dr Andrea Manica, also of Cambridge University stressed that the figures in the study are estimates based on limited data, so the researchers have been careful not to overstate the case.
Dr Manica stated “these are conservative calculations. Visit rates are likely to be higher than eight billion a year, and there’s no doubt we are talking about hundreds of billions of tourism dollars a year.”
The attempt to calculate these figures was in part borne from frustration, added Professor Balmford, explaining “we study what people get out of nature, so-called ‘ecosystem services’. While some ecosystem services are difficult to measure – such as cultural or religious benefits – we thought that nature-based recreation would be quite tractable: there’s a market and tangible visits you can count.
“However, when we started to investigate we found no-one had yet pieced the data together. So we got to work trawling for figures ourselves. After a few months we had constructed a database from which we could build our models. It’s limited, but it’s the best there is at the moment.”
The database consists of visiting figures for 550 sites worldwide, which were then used to build equations that could predict visit rates for a further 140,000 protected areas based on their size, remoteness, national income, and so on.
The results surprised even seasoned conservation researchers.
Nature tourism expert and team member Dr Matt Walpole of UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre calls their cautious estimate of eight billion annual visits an “astonishing figure that illustrates the value people place on experiencing nature”.
Visit rates were highest in North America, where protected areas receive a combined total of over three billion visits a year, and lowest in Africa, where many countries have less than 100,000 protected area visits annually.
The Golden Gate National Recreation Area near San Francisco had the highest recorded visit rate in the database with an annual average of 13.7 million visits, closely followed by the UK’s Lake District and Peak District National Parks, with 10.5 million and 10.1 million. By contrast, Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park got an annual average during the study period of 148,000 visits.
Team member Dr Jonathan Green, also based at Cambridge University, points out that it is far from just exotic places and large national parks that contribute to the visitation value of protected areas, stating “for many people, it’s the nature reserve on their doorstep where they walk the dog every Sunday.”
Fowlmere nature reserve, a few miles south of Cambridge University, receives an average of almost 23,000 visits a year.
By combining regional visit rates with region-specific averages for visitor spending – on everything from entry fees to transport and accommodation – the researchers were able to derive the most complete picture yet of the global economic significance of protected area visitation.
Dr Robin Naidoo of World Wildlife Fund, another author of the study, also stated “our US$600 billion figure for the annual value of protected area tourism is likely to be an underestimate – yet it dwarfs the less than US$10 billion spent annually on safeguarding and managing these areas.
“Through previous research, we know that the existing reserve network probably needs three to four times what is currently being spent on it.”
Professor Balmford concluded “while that may seem a lot of money, it’s a fraction of the economic benefit we get from protected areas – nature-based tourism is just one part.”
Click here to view the paper, Walk on the Wild Side: Estimating the Global Magnitude of Visits to Protected Areas, in the PLOS Biology journal.
Images show Kakadu National Park (top) and Tongariro National Park (below).
20th November 2014 - IUCN SUMMIT DELIVERS MAJOR COMMITMENTS TO SAVE EARTH’S MOST PRECIOUS NATURAL AREAS
18th November 2014 - CONSERVATIONISTS CALL FOR ACTION IN KAKADU
13th November 2014 - CONSERVATION AND PARKS LEADERS GATHER FOR WORLD PARKS CONGRESS IN SYDNEY
Asking a small favour
We hope that you value the news that we publish so while you're here can we ask for your support?
The news we publish at www.ausleisure.com.au is independent, credible (we hope) and free for you to access, with no pay walls and no annoying pop-up ads.
However, as an independent publisher, can we ask for you to support us by subscribing to the printed Australasian Leisure Management magazine - if you don't already do so.
Published bi-monthly since 1997, the printed Australasian Leisure Management differs from this website in that it publishes longer, in-depth and analytical features covering aquatics, attractions, entertainment, events, fitness, parks, recreation, sport, tourism and venues management.
Subscriptions cost just $90 a year.
Click here to subscribe.
The Complete Guide to Leisure Industry Products & Services.
Hydrocare Pool Services Pty Ltd offer 30 years of experience in aquatic industry features, products and water treatment. Hydrocare Pools has undertaken water treatment for aquatic centres and…read more
Trisley's Hydraulic Services P/L (THS) are a specialised pool company dealing with all aspects of the commercial swimming pool industry, including the installation and servicing from the smallest…read more
With its sleek good looks and easy-to-use yet powerful functionality, Envibe is the premium fitness club software for the Australasian leisure, recreation and fitness industry. We are the most…read more
ICP is an Australian-based company focused on indoor climbing. ICP will manage your project from initial design to completion and beyond, whether you're building an international-level climbing…read more
ETP Turf is a leading Australian specialty agronomic turf consultancy that supply a wide range of services and solutions for the professional turf market, Councils and sporting facilities. Our range…read more
We are Aussie Strength. The ultimate supplier for Commercial Gym Equipment that's built to deliver in the toughest environments. From USA-Built hardcore weight training equipment from Arsenal…read more
Turnstile Entry Systems and Access Control Centaman Entrance Controls’ Award Winning Range of Access Control Systems includes tripod & triarm turnstiles, speedgates, full height…read more
get listed with our suppliers directory
Get your business noticed in our targeted directory. Viewed by 10,000 industry professionals per week!